The production of any substance is based on the premise of energy consumption and resources. For fertilizer production, the production of nitrogen fertilizers consumes more energy, but as long as the sun exists, energy will be inexhaustible; seawater is a huge pool of potassium, as long as the seawater exists, potassium resources can be used by people for a long time; Phosphate resources are non-renewable for the next 100 million years, and they are irreplaceable resources for living organisms.
Since 2006, experts and scholars in many countries have issued an urgent appeal for the situation of phosphorus resources, and have paid particular attention to the rational exploitation and sustainable use of China's phosphorus resources. Experts in different fields have made considerable differences in how long the world and Chinaâ€™s phosphate mines can be mined. The world's phosphate deposits are estimated at 90-350 years, and China's phosphate deposits have a useful life of 30-176 years. This is because different authors have different data and different calculation methods.
Phosphorus ore reserves refer to economically exploitable, commercially viable quantities of phosphate rock. According to the US Geological Survey (USGS), the world's phosphate reserves were 67 billion tons in 2012, and 3.7 billion tons in China. The amount of phosphate rock resources refers to the actual amount of unprocessed phosphate rock in various grades. According to estimates by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), in 2010, the world's phosphorite resources were 290 billion tons, China was 16.8 billion tons, and phosphate rock resources were composed of 3% to 35% P2O5 different grades of phosphate rock. The average grade of the world's phosphorite is 21.5% P2O5, and China is 18%. The output of phosphate rock products in most countries refers to the so-called "standard phosphate rock" containing P2O530%.
There are mining losses during the mining of phosphate rock. The loss of ore concentrates from commercial phosphorus ore concentrates with an average grade of 18% P2O5 phosphorus ore to 30% P2O5, according to IFDC reports, the loss of beneficiation in the United States is about 20% to 30%, North Africa, the Middle East is about 30%, South American phosphorus Loss of ore concentrates reaches 40%.
In 2007, China's phosphate rock resources amounted to 17.63 billion tons, and it calculated and produced different varieties of phosphate fertilizer. How long can China's phosphate rock be mined?
According to 2012, China produced 17 million tons of phosphate fertilizer, 55 million tons of physical output, 64 million tons of phosphate rock for fertilizers, 64% recovery rate of phosphate rock, and 100 million tons of phosphorus resources per year. If the commodity phosphate minerals all require 30% P2O5, , more than 30% of P2O5 high-grade ore can be mined for 10 years; 20% to 30% of medium-grade phosphate ore is 4.85 billion tons, and 1 ton of 30% commercial phosphate rock is selected according to 1.5 tons of ore, which can be mined for 32 years; 10 20% to 20% of low-grade phosphate ore is 8.2 billion tons. According to 2.5 tons of ore, 1 ton of commercial phosphorus ore is selected, which can be mined for 33 years; 2% to 10% of ultra-low-grade phosphate rock is 2.92 billion ton, according to 8 tons of raw ore. Get 1 ton of commodity ore that can be mined for 4 years. Based on this estimate, China's 17.63 billion tons of phosphate rock resources will continue to be processed through beneficiation to produce P2O530% commercial phosphate rock for the production of ammonium phosphate products, and will be fully mined after 79 years.
According to the optimization of product structure, the annual physical output of ammonium phosphate high-concentration phosphate fertilizer is 10 million tons, and the purified output is 5 million tons; the annual physical output of low-concentration phosphoric acid and superphosphate calcium phosphate is 25 million tons, and the purified output is 3 million. T; thermal method of low concentration of phosphate fertilizer, calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate fertilizer, annual output of 20 million tons, 2 million tons of pure production; the total amount is still 55 million tons, but the discounted output is only 10 million tons of P2O5.
In order to produce 10 million tons of ammonium phosphate fertilizer, approximately 19 million tons of 30% P2O5 commodity phosphate ore will be needed each year. In 2007, the amount of high-grade phosphate rock resources was 1.66 billion tons, with an average grade of 31.9%. During the six years from 2007 to 2012, 400 million tons of phosphate ore was produced, resulting in a reduction of 600 million tons of phosphorus resources, and an average of 1.06 billion tons of phosphorus ore containing P2O531.9%, which is calculated based on the mining recovery rate of 90%. Years to use. 292 million tons of ultra-low-grade phosphate rock containing 2% to 10% P2O5, through processing to provide 30% P2O5 commodity mine, can be used for 4 years. In other words, China still has high-grade phosphorite and ultra-low-grade phosphate ore concentrates, which can be used for the production of ammonium phosphate fertilizers for 57 years. After 57 years or from now on, China should gradually increase the imports of high-grade commercial phosphate rock from Morocco.
To produce 25 million tons of superphosphate calcium fertilizers containing P2O512%, S11%, and CaO 25%, 20% to 30% P2O5 middle-grade phosphate rock can be used directly, with an average grade of 24.3% P2O5, and 580 per ton of superphosphate. KG contains phosphorus ore with 24.3% P2O5, annual consumption of 14.5 million tons, medium-grade phosphorite resources of 4.85 billion tons, mining recovery rate of 90%, and can be mined for 301 years.
In order to produce 20 million tons of P2O510%, MgO12%, CaO30%, effective SiO228% thermal low-concentration phosphate fertilizer or acidic soil conditioner, P2O can be used directly from 510% to 20% of low-grade phosphate rock, with an average of P2O516.3 %. Each ton of product consumes 700 kilograms of low-grade phosphate ore, annual consumption of 14 million tons, and 8.2 billion tons of low-grade phosphate rock. The mining recovery rate is 90%, and it can be mined for 527 years.
According to this different grade of phosphate rock production of different types of phosphate fertilizer, supplemented by imported commodity-grade phosphate rock, China's phosphate rock can be mined for 300 to 500 years, drying out simultaneously with the years of phosphate rock mining in Morocco.
55 million tons of physical phosphorus fertilizer provides 10 million tons of P2O5, 2.75 million tons of S, 2.4 million tons of MgO, 12.25 million tons of CaO, and 5.6 million tons of SiO2 per year. These are all nutritious elements available for crops, equivalent to 17 million tons in 2012. P2O5 fertilizer effect. It is sufficient to optimize the product structure to achieve better ecological benefits.
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