Apply proper amount of water soluble fertilizer at the right time

The basic feature of "water soluble fertilizer" is that it is well water soluble and can be completely dissolved in water. This can be directly absorbed and utilized by the roots and leaves of crops, so water-soluble fertilizer is a kind of quick-acting fertilizer. The "new" of this type of fertilizer is not in its "water-soluble" and "all-fast-acting" aspects, but in its functional development, including application routes, application methods and purity, and dosage forms. In fact, more than 80% of conventional NPK fertilizers are characterized by water solubility and quick-acting properties. In order to adapt to the needs of modern intensive agriculture and to achieve precise management of water resources and nutrient resources in high-yield, high-quality and efficient planting, it is necessary to develop and promote such fertilizers scientifically and appropriately.

Throughout the history and current situation of the development of water-soluble fertilizers at home and abroad, there are many types of products, which can be divided into solid (dry) and liquid, and there is a distinction between simple and complex. The common single nitrogen fertilizer solution is dissolved ammonium nitrate. Prepared by conventional large chemical fertilizers such as urea or ammonium sulfate. Among the composite water-soluble fertilizers, there are binary (nitrogen phosphorus, nitrogen potassium or phosphorus potassium), nitrophosphate potassium ternary type and multi-nutrient solid or liquid composite water soluble fertilizer containing trace elements. In the liquid compound fertilizer, foliar fertilizer is taken as an example, including dry material and liquid, and is divided into a plurality of multi-sample systems mainly for supplying trace elements and supplying a large amount and a small amount of weight. It can be seen that although the total yield of water-soluble fertilizer is not large, its product types and dosage forms are numerous.

From the specific analysis of water soluble fertilizer production and application, this type of fertilizer has the following characteristics:

The production cost of compound water soluble fertilizer is generally higher than that of conventional nutrient fertilizers. It is required that all raw materials are completely water-soluble, so the materials are more expensive. Although the production of liquid water soluble fertilizer is less than conventional compound fertilizer, its storage, transportation and application require specialized equipment and the cost is also high. For example, in order to prevent crystallization and precipitation during solution cooling in the low temperature season, advanced and costly equipment is required for liquid fertilizer storage and transportation. Therefore, the price of water-soluble fertilizer is generally higher than that of large-scale fertilizer products.

In the application of farmland, the application of such fertilizers is not the same as that of large fertilizers. Generally, it is combined with irrigation, and the fertilizer and irrigation water are integrated into the root soil or crop leaves through different irrigation methods. According to different irrigation methods, fertilization can be divided into flushing, spraying and fertilizing. The application of the solid water soluble fertilizer is first dissolved and formulated into a mixed solution, followed by application or spraying. The liquid water soluble fertilizer needs to be equipped with pipelines, storage tanks, fertilizer applicators and other ancillary equipment. The fertilizer is easily dissolved into the irrigation water, which can be sprayed and dripped, or directly diluted with water to be sprayed with foliar fertilizer.

Advantages of water-soluble fertilizer: First, the use of water, fertilizer, and water, to achieve water and fertilizer integration, high fertilization efficiency, and can reduce the total amount of fertilizer, play a synergistic effect of fertilizer and water, so that the efficiency of fertilizer and water use Significantly improved. Second, the fertilizer efficiency is fast, which can solve the nutritional needs of high-yield crops in the rapid growth period.

Disadvantages of water-soluble fertilizer: First, the price of water-soluble fertilizer is generally high, which is not conducive to popularization. Second, it is fast-acting and difficult to store in the soil for a long time. The amount of fertilizer should be strictly controlled. If the single use is slightly more, it will cause the loss of fertilizer, which will reduce the economic benefits of fertilization, fail to achieve the goal of high yield, high quality and high efficiency, and will also cause pollution of the water environment, which is not conducive to sustainable development.

In short, from the perspective of the degree of industrial development in China, the research and development of related products are still not enough. For example, liquid fertilizers that are applied with irrigation water have not been developed and produced in large quantities. In terms of application, the key to the application of water-soluble fertilizers is to grasp the principle of timely and appropriate combination of water and fertilizer. At present, the fertilization techniques under different cultivation systems and the nutrient demand rules during the growth of major crops, the appropriate fertilization period, the amount of fertilization, etc. Less. From the perspective of marketing status, some enterprises blindly expand or make one-sided publicity of the performance and scope of water-soluble fertilizer products for promotion, which will be misleading for consumers. For example, in the instructions for the use of "completely water-soluble potassium sulphate", the amount of topdressing per acre is increased to 15 kg, which is obviously excessive and inappropriate. In another example, in the instructions for the use of “imported potassium nitrate”, the “applicable to all crops” is incorrectly marked, which may mislead farmers to suffer losses by expanding the target crop. These phenomena are not conducive to the promotion and application of water-soluble fertilizers and healthy development. (This issue: Senior Consultant of Sinofert, Professor of China Agricultural University Cao Yiping)
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